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A fishing reel is a cranking reel attached to a fishing rod used in winding and stowing fishing line. Modern recreational fishing reels usually have fittings aiding in casting for distance and accuracy, as well as retrieving line. Fishing reels are traditionally used in angling and competitive casting. They are typically attached near the handle of a fishing rod, though some specialized reels with pressure sensors for immediate retrieval are equipped on downrigger systems which are mounted directly to an ocean-going sport boat's gunwales or transoms and are used for "deep drop" and trolling.
Types of fishing reel
Fly reel - A fly reel is a single-action reel, normally operated by stripping line off the reel with one hand, while casting the rod with the other hand. The main purpose of a fly reel is to store line, provide smooth uninterrupted tension (drag) when a fish makes a long run, and counterbalance the weight of your fly rod when casting. When used in fly fishing, the fly reel or fly casting reel has traditionally been rather simple in terms of mechanical construction, and little has changed from the design patented by Charles F. Orvis of Vermont in 1874. Orvis first introduced the idea of using light metals with multiple perforated holes to construct the housing, resulting in a lighter reel that also allowed the spooled fly line to dry more quickly than a conventional, solid-sided design. Early fly reels placed the crank handle on the right side of the reel. Most had no drag mechanism, but were fitted with a click/pawl mechanism intended to keep the reel from overrunning when line was pulled from the spool. To slow a fish, the angler simply applied hand pressure to the rim of the revolving spool (known as "palming the rim"). Later, these click/pawl mechanisms were modified to provide a limited adjustable drag of sorts. Although adequate for smaller fish, these did not possess a wide adjustment range or the power to slow larger fish.
Baitcasting reel - The Baitcasting reels or revolving-spool reels, like the conventional reel, is a multiplying reel that is to say that the line is stored on a bearing-supported revolving spool that is geared so that a single revolution of the crank handle results in multiple revolutions of the spool.The baitcasting reel is mounted above the rod, hence its other name given to it in New Zealand and Australia, the overhead reel. The baitcasting reel dates from at least the mid-17th century, but came into wide use by amateur anglers during the 1870s. Early bait casting reels were often constructed with brass or iron gears, with casings and spools made of brass, German silver, or hard rubber. Featuring multiplying gears ranging from 2:1 to 4:1, these early reels had no drag mechanism, and anglers used their thumb on the spool to provide resistance to runs by a fish. As early as the 1870s, some models used bearings to mount the spool; as the free-spinning spool tended to cause backlash with strong pulls on the line, manufacturers soon incorporated a clicking pawl mechanism. This 'clicker' mechanism was never intended as a drag, but used solely to keep the spool from overrunning, much like a fly reel. Baitcasting reel users soon discovered that the clicking noise of the pawls provided valuable warning that a fish had taken the live bait, allowing the rod and reel to be left in a rod holder while awaiting a strike by a fish.
Spinning (fixed-spool) reel - Spinning reels, also called fixed spool reels or egg beaters, were in use in North America as early as the 1870s. They were originally developed to allow the use of artificial flies, or other lures for trout or salmon, that were too light in weight to be easily cast by bait casting reels. Fixed-spool or spinning reels are normally mounted below the rod; this positioning conforms to gravity, requiring no wrist strength to maintain the reel in position. For right-handed persons, the spinning rod is held and cast by the strong right hand, leaving the left hand free to operate the crank handle mounted on the left side of the reel. Invention of the fixed-spool or spinning reel solved the problem of backlash, since the reel had no rotating spool capable of overrunning and fouling the line.